چهارشنبه 1 آبان 1398
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لغت: factotum-n
ترجمه: آدم همه کاره، خدمتکار/Fr:factotum
After graduating from college, Jerry worked for several years as an office factotum.

Autant que je puis m`y connaître, Vous êtes factotum de monsieur notre maître. [DESTOUCHES, Le glorieux]
"همه کارها را انجام بده!" انجام اين دستور سخت است، اما دقيقا همان چيزي است که از يک خدمتکار انتظار مي رود که انجام دهد. اين ترجمه همچنين ترجمه تحت اللفظي از اصطلاح لاتين "factotum" است که برگرفته از کلمات لاتين "facere" ("انجام دادن") و "totum" ("همه چيز") است. در قرن 16اُم، کلمه "factotum" در زبان انگليسي بسيار شبيه به يک نام خانوادگي استفاده ميشد، همراه با نام اشخاص براي بيان شخصيت هايي مانند "ژان مستخدم" (به معناي "ژان که همه کار خانه را انجام ميدهد"). بعد از آن زمان، ديگر لزوما مطلوب نبود که شخصي "خدمتکار" خوانده شود، اين واژه مترادف "meddler" و يا "busybody"(به معناي همه کاره) بود. در حال حاضر اين واژه اغلب براي فردي به کار ميرود که همه کاره ، سودمند و مسئول بسياري از کارهاي مختلف است.
توصيه ها يي درمورد ترجمه: در زمان مواجه با اشتباهات فاحش درمتن اصلي چه شيوه هايي رامي توان بکاربست.
Translation Tips: What to Do When The Source Text is Wrong
توصيه ها يي درمورد ترجمه: در زمان مواجه با اشتباهات فاحش درمتن اصلي چه شيوه هايي رامي توان بکاربست.
چهارشنبه 30 مرداد 1392 - 11:42:58 AM
در فرآيند ترجمه مقالات علمي بومي، ممکن است مترجم با يکسري اشتباهات، خطاها ويا ابهاماتي خاص روبرو شود. از آنجايي که وفا داري به متن اصلي بسيارپراهميت است. در اين مقاله يکسري نسخه هاي پزشکي موردبررسي قرارگرفته و راه حل هايي مطرح شده است.

Hey, Anthony here.

Throughout the course of translating indigenous scientific articles one is bound to come across source texts that contain obvious mistakes, errors, ambiguities, or inaccuracies. As a scientific translator, we need to ensure faithfulness to the source text. At the same time, we must also document our process of translation (i.e, the decisions we make). Of course, this type of commentary can be unappreciated by some clients, but in many cases, being a stickler of what is right = client retention + self-education. I recall reading Nabokov’s extensive translation notes in his translation of Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin. It filled the second volume (also one of the greatest poems in the Russian language).

The bulk of my clients eventually became non-native English speakers (NNESs) who need help with publishing manuscripts because of my emphasis in commenting and additional research. In other words, I eventually went into trans-creation, and finally medical writing.


1. Disambiguating

Source A

Disambiguating is key

In this example, I translated the sentence as the following, modifying the original :

Yet, the availability of new treatment methods also comes with it the increase in different treatment-related complications [3], and the sophistication of the management of the disease

I clarified my translation with this comment:

This has been clarified; new treatments in this context don’t sophisticate the disease itself, since what changes is not the disease itself, but the management of it.

2. Incorrect/Inconsistent Terminology

Many indigenous journals allow incorrect or ambiguous terminology in English. Many abstracts are not even edited before they are published. Some of the errors by the original can be rather confusing, and thus need to be reconciled in a translation. In many cases, drugs are often referred by other names that are less referenced in the target language.

a. Term Preference

Source B

Being consistent with terms familiar to the target language

In this case, I translated the sentence as:

A 62-year old woman diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in June 1999 was started on methimazole (MMI), but subsequently developed drug eruptions; in July 1999 she was started on propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy.

My comment here was:

The term thiamazole appears to be commonly used in Japan. It is more commonly known as methimazole (MMI) in the West. I have opted to use methimazole to avoid confusion.

b. Incorrect Terminology

Source C

Ensuring proper terminology and consistency throughout the article

Source C.2

Rectifying errors made by the original authors

In this case, the English provided by the authors in Figure 1 is ambiguous and does not correspond to his description in text. I translated the text as the following:

Chest radiographic findings: CXR showed diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lung field and throughout the left lung field. Chest computer tomography (CT) showed diffuse infiltrates in the right lower lobe and throughout the left lobe; increased lung density * and centrilobular nodules** were present (Fig.1)

I added the following comments:

* This is mistranslated as “lung field concentration” in the legend for Figure 1.

** The source text refers to this as “centrilobular granular shadows”, which is the equivalent of  “centrilobular nodules”; apparently the former is only used in translated Japanese literature.

 3. Paragraph Restructuring/Minor Trans-creation

Source D

Trans-creating (to some extent) long/complicated sentences.


In some languages, run-ons or long Pynchon-esque sentences are common. The number of dependent clauses in a sentence can be very confusing to reproduce in the target language. In such cases, the translator should opt to restructure the paragraph of the sentence without distorting the meaning.

In the example above, the paragraph consisted of only two sentences. I opted to translate this paragraph as such:

MPO-ANCA-positive vasculitis was confirmed in the present case based on the following evidence: 1) the patient had been receiving PTU therapy for a total period of 6 years and 4 months prior to admission; 2) she showed elevated serum MPO-ANCA levels on admission; 3) lung biopsy confirmed alveolar hemorrhage and renal biopsy showed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; and 4) global and laboratory improvements (decreased MPO-ANCA levels) were seen following discontinuation of PTU * . However, differential diagnosis should include Wegener’s granulomatosis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, and connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This is because various autoantibodies, including anti-thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibodies, are detected in hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism may also be complicated by other autoimmune disorders. Other autoantibodies excluding ANCA may also be detected in drug-induced vasculitis. **

To show my client what I did, I added the following comments:

* This sentence was one complete sentence in the source text; because this was a list, I have opted to number the clauses for clarity.  I do not see how to edit this otherwise.

** This sentence was also one complete sentence in the text. I have translated this with modifications.

These comments are not only necessary, but also important because:

1) your client/PM probably doesn’t know one of the languages in your language pair, and can only try to check for errors by following visual cues in sentences (numbers, names, abbreviations);

2) the QA or your editor will need to see what you have done.

Developing a habit for commenting is one of the most important things a translator must pick-up. There’s so much room for creativity in translations that it’s difficult to imagine machines being able to sift through cultural idiosyncrasies and ambiguities as easily.!

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